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Effectively managing the symptoms of your patients with SPMS through a comprehensive approach, can help to delay the impact of progressive disease and protect their brain and cognitive reserve.1 There are many non-pharmacological measures and lifestyle factors which may help contribute to this.1

GP, general practitioner; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; MS, multiple sclerosis; NHS, National Health Service; SPMS, secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

References

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  13. Kappus N et al. Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with increased lesion burden and brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2016;87:181–187.
  14. Jick SS et al. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis: results from a large observational study in the UK. J Neurol. 2015;262(9):2033–2041.
  15. Braley TJ, Chervin RD. Fatigue in multiple sclerosis: mechanisms, evaluation, and treatment.Sleep. 2010;33:1061–1067.
  16. D’Hooghe M B et al. Modifiable factors influencing relapses and disability in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2010;16:773–785.
  17. Ozcan ME et al. Association between smoking and cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2014;10:1715–1719.
  18. Zivadinov R, et al. Autoimmune comorbidities are associated with brain injury in multiple sclerosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2016;37:1010–1016.
  19. MS Trust. MS and me: a self-management guide to living with MS. Available at: https://support.mstrust.org.uk/file/ms-and-me.pdf. Last accessed November 2021.
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